Etiket utopia

Architecture of your utopia

What would be the architecture of your utopia?

A pixel city, Melis Baloğlu Aşut

What materials would be used to construct your utopia? What would be the reasons for the use of these materials and techniques?

A pixel city, Melis Baloğlu Aşut

Would your utopia have high population density or low population density?

A dense city, denSity, Melis Baloğlu Aşu

Would your utopia be rural or urban? Or both?

A hybrid city, Melis Baloğlu Aşut

What if?

Soviet Children’s Book

While the US was involved in the space race and telling its children about how the US was going to be first, the Russians were also publishing pro-space books for their children.

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Station Moon, a Soviet children’s book by Pavel Klushantsev, 1965 and 1974

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Station Moon, a Soviet children’s book by Pavel Klushantsev, 1965 and 1974

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Station Moon, a Soviet children’s book by Pavel Klushantsev, 1965 and 1974

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Station Moon, a Soviet children’s book by Pavel Klushantsev, 1965 and 1974

Source: http://io9.gizmodo.com/how-soviet-artists-imagined-communist-life-in-space-1558140402

Check this website also http://dreamsofspace.blogspot.com.tr/2009/06/station-moon-stantsiia-luna-1965.html

Hippie Modernism:The Struggle for Utopia

 

This Walker-organized exhibition, assembled with the assistance of the Berkeley Art Museum/Pacific Film Archive, examines the intersections of art, architecture, and design with the counterculture of the 1960s and early 1970s.

More to discover: http://www.walkerart.org/calendar/2015/hippie-modernism-struggle-utopia

Generating Utopia – Transforming land using location-based behaviour of its residents

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Created by Stefan Wagner, an interaction and motion designer based in Würzburg-Germany, Generating Utopia is a realtime visualisation of social location data. The project explores questions of what human habitats could look like if it was possible to transform them depending on the location-based behaviour of their residents. The data was taken from various users of Foursquare and visualised using Processing.

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Read more source link: http://www.creativeapplications.net/processing/generating-utopia-transforming-landscape-using-location-based-behaviour-of-its-residents/

All photos from http://www.creativeapplications.net/processing/generating-utopia-transforming-landscape-using-location-based-behaviour-of-its-residents/

A utopian dream and some entertainment on the side

Screenshot_1Michael Schitnig and Marleen Leitner (from Studio Asynchrome) reinterpret Bruno Taut’s “Der Weltbaumeister” (“The World’s Master Builder”, 1919) in a new, unique way by animating 28 original drawings in a tale of utopian dreams and philosophical entertainment about the delicate, complex relationship between architecture and humans.

In Asynchrome’s three-act narration, cathedral stars spin and dance and alter their form, up to a moment when “space is not just a feature of a shape – it is a feature of humans” (as the story says). Their philosophical research leads to the awareness that, over the course of history, people seem to have lost their belief in utopia, since contemporary architecture seems to have become more anonymous and to have lost its original sparkle of utopianism during the transformation from cabin, to house, to cathedral, to glass and crystal skyscraper.

The short film was created as part of the architecture diploma “No-Man’s-Spaces – On the Tracks of Utopia” at the Faculty of Architecture of Graz (Institute of Contemporary Art) and opened the screening of the film festival of the Architekturzentrum Wien (Center of Architecture Vienna) at the Museumsquartier in 2015.

Source link: http://www.architectureplayer.com/clips/der-weltbaumeister

Credits

Author: studio ASYNCHROME

Reference: “Der Weltbaumeister” (1919) by Bruno Taut

Austria 2014
Duration: 7’55”

utopia could be the answer…

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Explaining Utopia, Speakers’ Corner Hyde Park, circa 1950(?)

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look: http://theopenutopia.org/look/

Utopia of Two Cities

source: http://www.waithinktank.com/Utopia-of-Two-Cities

Against the remarkable traits of buildings that often make architecture an attempt at creating uniqueness, it’s the ruin that possesses the ubiquitously transforming quality of turning everything around you into the same. I was walking through ruins. Wall fragments carried my sight through immutable layers of history of something made sublime by its absence. Somehow, I kept repeating in my head these lines by Borges:
From the past we keep some names that language tends to forget.
Mysteriously taking material form around me.

The ground crumbled under my feet. Dust particles defied the laws of gravity in their relentless and chaotic ascent. From within exposed masonry and curved metal bars I saw a building that was left untouched. A bearded man welcomed me in. He had a deep, serious look. His clothes were stained with paint, although around us everything seemed neat and organized. It looked like he lived alone, but was somehow not surprised to see me.

He led me down a long corridor. After taking a left turn we entered a studio. The room was lit with sunlight falling from a slit on the ceiling, washing its naked concrete walls, exacerbating the austerity of living in lack of excess.

I will show you what you came looking for—he said with emanating calm in an accent from another time.
Left without an option, I confusedly accepted.

After taking some slow, thoughtful steps, he pointed at two rags of fabric attached to the wall with delicate, thin nails. Worn down and stained by time, each cloth displayed a simple geometric shape. The irregularity of their edges disclosed a sense of urgency in their creation. Visible cracks revealed the eminent dissipating elasticity of old pigment. Both pieces, one displaying a black square, the other a white vertical rectangle were radically neutral, unadorned.

You must have come looking for answers—he claimed.
I didn’t offer any response and he continued:

Time ago I created two images of a desert, each one with a single geometric form. Misinterpreted and misread, each one of these paintings led a vision of the world with a particular philosophy. Full legions of followers believed they have deciphered the meaning of these works. They believed in their metaphysical presence. In their latent promises.

But—he added, a work of art is nothing if it doesn’t fulfil its role of autonomy. There could be no exactitude in the meaning of a work of art. There is no other certainty than the truth of what the work of art is by and for itself.

The light of the works, they claimed, led them to build entire societies, villages, and towns, buildings and cities.
Obliged, I intervened:
Are there still remnants of these societies?

He nodded without uttering a word, staring blankly to the wall, the paintings now looking more intriguing than before.

What happened to the buildings? To the people?

Driven by blinding excitement, people built two monuments, or rather, lived their lives as dynamic monuments to each one of these pieces. For the black square, they created a monolith out of the blackest stone. Of unprecedented size, the structure was as tall, as was wide at its base. All life in the villages and towns turned around the Black Cube.

People spent great part of their lives building and mantaining the Black Cube. Aways dressed in black of the darkest hue, they lived to admire and defend it. To justify its importance they created schools based on its philosophical teachings. Education was devised to explain through diverse forms of science and philosophy the ideas behind the Black Cube.

To protect it they created an army of like-minded people in adoration of the Black Cube. What is a society without defending its doctrines? Artists paid tributes in all the forms to the Black Cube. What is a society where art doesn’t represent the philosophy of its people? People lived for the Black Cube. Art was meant to represent the Black Cube.

And what about the White rectangle? I interjected.

Following dogmatic tradition, those left out by the doctrines of the Black Cube, decided to create their own parallel society. The white rectangle was the icon of a life of transparency. They built a tall, slender tower of glimmering glass façade. Around it, people dressed in white. Their visual interest in the glass tower was manifested in things you can see through.

In this society privacy was forbidden. Education and philosophy was based in a concept of complete revelation. Its army would do anything to defend this transparency, to fight the values the Black Cube represented.

Like the Black Cube—he added, the White Tower was an image that defined the aesthetic concepts of societal life. It was the base of the language people used to communicate with each other. Life existed because of the White Tower—or the Black Cube, to learn from them, respect them and fight for them.

Language—he said— is nothing but a decipherable set of images. To control the image of life is to define life. The leaders of the Black Cube and the White Tower understood the power of image, but underestimated their effects on the mental state of people. Aesthetics is a device where concepts are portrayed as the sublime manifestation of truth. Through these concepts, their meaning in relation to other concepts you can control the image of life and therefore the lives of people.
Disagreement ensued as each society channelled every scientific development, every ideological cornerstone into discrediting the opposite worldview. It was a matter of time—he added to my silent stare.

Speechless, I walked behind him back into the ruins, leaving the house behind. My mind it’s still fixed on the two paintings, and in the nothingness they tried to portray.

Dystopia & Utopia & Science Fiction

 

Screenshot 2015-03-17 15.55.08

Selçuk Artut, Istanbul’da yaşıyor. Lisans derecesini Koç Üniversitesi Matematik Bölümü’nden, yüksek lisansını Londra Middlesex Üniversitesi Sesnel Sanatlar Bölümü’nden aldı. Doktorasını Medya İletişim Felsefesi üzerine tamamlamıştır. Şu anda tam zamanlı olarak Sabancı Üniversitesi Görsel Sanatlar ve Görsel İletişim Tasarımı Programı’nda Ses, Etkileşim Sanat ve Tasarımı, Teknoloji, Kültür ve Sanat Felsefesi üzerine dersler vermektedir. Artut’un sanat etkinlikleri Galeri Zilberman tarafından temsil edilmektedir.

Yazmakla bitmez işleri görsellediği teşekkürler! Devamı için tık tık link: http://selcukartut.com/dystopia-utopia/

U-SENSUS

U-SENSUS

“There will not be no place (utopia), dedicated to living happily ever after.”

U-SENSUS, Şebnem Çakaloğulları link : http://kolokyum.com/yazi/6022/mansiyon__uluslararasi_mimarlar_birligi_utopya_mutluluk_ve_hayaller_uluslararasi_mimari_fikir_yarismasi#more

U-SENSUS, Şebnem Çakaloğulları

 

Gebze Institute of Technology Department of Architecture
Res. Asisst. Şebnem Çakaloğulları, Gizem Aslan (student), Furkan Koçoğulları (student) got Jury Special Mention from UIA International Architecture Competition of Ideas: Utopia and/or Happiness in Your Otherwhere with the project named “U-SENSUS”.

Here you can read the manifest of U-SENSUS from the winners (congratulations my friend , Şebnem 🙂 )

 There will not be no place (utopia), dedicated to living happily ever after.

There will be a place but no sense (u-sensus) which is dedicated to denying all the sensual affirmations and categorizations.

This new perspective for manifesting the cut and dry concept cracks the rigid covers of geocentricfuture projections, deduced from today. We are in the era where the humanity is lost its self being as a consequence of structure centered living. There is no place for the mind, body, experience. Please be aware of sense of being full, which is caused by the completion of the sensual percept that brings the end. “END IS SO NEAR”.

I see we are suffering from this disease being done without knowing any reason and solution or cure. That is why this is not an evolution of the built environment or buildings for making individual happy, on the contrary this will be explosion of the human as an individual mass and it turns back very ancient sensual acts.

The world needs feedbacks, this is the time and there should be no hesitation and affirmations. Although having lifelong happiness is apodictically intended foreseen for the utopian thinking, this explicit incarceration breaks the continuity in satisfaction. Because the long term happiness brings the communal affirmations and penetrations in our experience memory. This fragile point is defined as randomness and bathos. For being able to percept variety in the sense, it is needed to be kept the contradistinction circumstances for feeling depletion. We propose that the troubles, crisis and any other misunderstanding bring back to thinking, sensing and inherently waken the body of the human as a recipient. Individualization, ideal, completed are notions that give the sense of linear limitation without setting self-being thinking about the human existence beyond its materiality. And it is ended with the loss of sensorial properties so

It needs change…,

  It needs action…,

  It needs explosion

“I am hungry and I need to be fed” said the person who is looking for the unlimited happiness. There is no certain explanation of the happiness my friend. You should feed yourself with different sense via tasting with your senses. Happiness is just one feeling as a result of satisfaction. That is why pursuing it and looking for the certain direction for the endower of happiness is absurd. Satisfaction is better and suspense term instead of happiness. Satisfaction feature many things including happiness too. It depends on the sensual act of person, people, communities or groups. This is the key point, manifests the general understanding, in our future projection. Each being, lives in the u-sensus, creates their satisfactory conditions by using their distinctive sense in the explosive process which is shaped by the flexible, transformable, interactive, contradistinction and circumstances.

At that time revelation of self-beings derive from the dreams in u-sensus as a future projection. From now to u sensus!

The phases are;

U-sensus Eve: This is the process that shows the increased distance between spaces I live (SIL) and space I dream (SID) is increased. U-sensus sets direct relation between quality of the space and mental distance among SIL-SID. If it is increased hegemony of materiality gradually disappears. Self-beings are in SID where the senses are used in maximum level.

The Life in U-sensus: after it gradually increases the graphic is reached its peak point and u sensus is the place for living in a dream (LID).

Space I Live will be turned Living In a Dream via limitless sensory acts and vice versa.

Link to project: http://kolokyum.com/yazi/6022/mansiyon__uluslararasi_mimarlar_birligi_utopya_mutluluk_ve_hayaller_uluslararasi_mimari_fikir_yarismasi#more

 

OUTofRULE

OUTOFRULE

 

ABSTRACT

 

The game in its broadest sense is an amusing way to spend time in every field. But the thing that breaks the amusement is the certain, general rules of the game against rapidly changing world in the scale of urban. That is why the pressure on the individuals can be felt. They are independent from each others in a metropolis, due to reach the minimum values of life to meet their basic needs from the time that they prefer to live in fixed rules of ordinary games which are vicious.

Today’s the higher population number brings less interaction between individual and individual, individual and nature, individual and metropolis. The habits of people are organized by their every day experience, supported by ordinary mono-functional devices in urban scale and their habits turn into their rule in a roundabout ways. The term, -functional, represents the ability of materials surprising people who use them. Then, the ordinary life is over floated by rigged game.

The frame of ordinary life is broken. Breaking the routines associates with sharpening and the strongest changing on the each personal rule is achieved by the radical changing on the urban context.  The question is where this radical changing comes to place in metropolis like Istanbul. Through the analysis and observations, discussed in article, there is no special place but there is a dominant character helping to create a new game which is related to urban furniture.

The recommendations, in the article, are categorized as sub headings developed for each of the scenarios developed according to vertical and horizontal urban furniture and their material quality which is specified as solid, soft and smooth but totally opposite usage what we are used to. Finally, daily used urban furniture creates it selves illimitably according to individuals’ perception and The Game never stops!

Key words: routine, interactions, urban furniture, metropolis, experience

INTRODUCTION

   The word, called metropolis, simply involves the variety of culture and history, crowdedness. Correspondingly the reflection to the life of habitants must be joy full. However unlike the understandings of the experienced existence in the city, the life in metropolis consists of facing the very simple, basic needs in our global world. Here people move fast hail taxis, wait for traffic light, meet people and go to work. Invisible forces and unwritten laws determine why people move and pause in streets. Through the critics about our century, it is so obvious that the media and the other communication technology just serve the direct and the visual percepts. Instead of exploring other vicarious vital feeling it is just caught the simple side of sense. Then every time it is repeated and nothing, new experiments, occurs. The problem that is handled by the project which magnifies the everyday life is about experiencing or skipping life in the metropolis. With respect to these questions, the aim is to seek the way for saving the habitants of the metropolis from the one dimensional, mono functional space through changing their experiences during the travelling in the streets.

In the beings life, city has an important role not only sustained their life but also increasing social interaction that is called game. However people who live in minimum perceptual demands are ignored the importance of habitat by ceasing the interrupting role of the speed of everyday life and environmental forms that make us alienate from public experiences. According to understanding of city for Lynch (1960), the roads and streets, determining the shape of the city, are usually identified as an open space for the public[1]. Rather than determining the structure of the city, today’s they give shape to beings movements.  Despite of what we are dictated about public and private space, in the practice our acts are turned to be our routines by the limited urban interaction in the openings of the city, due to the quality of them which are places to be passed through.We highlight social control, mutual trust, institutional resources, disorder, and routine activity patterns.

In metropolis, lacking of meeting with others destroys the chance of joyful experiences because meeting with different people enlarges the experience. Through time, the memories of place become routine. Each time this routine repeated then it becomes experience. How this constant experience in metropolis can be broken is the essential question of the article. Build environment should help people to meet and create surprises. That means, urban furniture should be re-active and break the memory of routine but from the other side it should store the memory. (Figure 1.Activity classification)[2]

The handled problem is lacking of interaction which is based on the standardization and specific order of the urban context, furniture. As the explanation of Eroğlu and Kesim (2001) the urban furniture is the objects, designed with being in line with the rule and minimum value, reduce self being characteristics[3]. The important point is telicity of the design. It means telicity of the percept too. According to Rapoport (1982) space gives direction people behavior with the object in it[4]. With the telic aspect order makes being feel as if under command and tame them. This totalitarian control erases the people percept.

Breaking the heavy frame of telicity between the habitant’s routine and the potential of the urban life is related to changing the perception of the city. This idea brings its question in the meanwhile.  How this concrete urban rule and the system are let the habitants support their sense of experiences? Mostly we are acting unconsciously due to live in routine.   This paper is seeking the way ,out of rule, by offering a new urban furniture, atelic order, to the city against classic ,cut and dried urban form and material usage due to what we see is what we percept any time.

ROUTINE, INTERACTION, METROPOLIS, PUBLIC SPACE

According to the statement of Moss (1989), ‘man is shaping and being shaped by the world[5]’. Simply defines the mutual effect between the man and built environment. It can be identified as the livings in the metropolis subjects to challenge and supervision. Simmel (1902) thought about how the beings psychologically react against these limitations[6]. Together with this two reasonable sense, our interaction with the environment naturally is set by what habitants take and what they give to the city. The first point is the thing, taken from the city that the main reason for making them monotone in the frame of the urban beings social interaction. The things that taken from the city are meant to be free, open, public space that involve maximum particular beings in theory.

The meaning of the metropolis comes from Greek word and means the “mother city” of a colony (in the ancient sense), that was later generalized to a city regarded as a center of a specified activity, or any large, important city in a nation. According to streets and roads that vivify the city; provide to habitants free swing. On the other hand the streets determine the structure and the shape of the city. The idea behind Lynch (1960) notion is much developed street wire brings improved urban structure so these traces take away context, solids and voids. The unity of the structure of the metropolis and social understanding of metropolis from Greek term bring the minds today’s metropolis[7].

Then when looking Jacob (1993) he proclaims that “Sociability is a large part of why cities exist and streets are a major… “By focusing on the social roles[8]. In terms of sociality approaches through the metropolis life, Oldenburg (2001) classified the spaces and third space where everyone has possibilities to get in touch with others is defined outside of the working place and homes[9].’ Although 3rd place refers to social surroundings, it is separated from the two usual social environments; home and the workplace and street can be also defined theoretically. Streets facilitate social contact, social awareness and social cohesion (Mehta, 2007)[10]. As we put differently, streets provide opportunities for short-term, low-intensity contacts that constitute easy interactions with other people in a relaxed and relatively undemanding way (Gehl, 1987). To sum up, 3rd place focuses on the social aspect. In this point human activities are key factors that contribute to the character of place. Then Schultz (1980) genius loci explains better the human percept in the urban context[11]. The term a genius locus refers, ‘if the settlements are organically related to their environment, it implies that they serve as foci where the environment is condensed and ‘explained….Protecting and conserving the genius loci means interpreting it in ever new ways. ‘The relation between the parameter of the environments and the objectivity brings the interpretation in every time the originality for each experience. In addition to changing’s, the others are concrete. Through the space classification of Schultz (1980) existential space is based on the tangible perception and together with the cultural background of the perceiver. The fractionation of time and space turn the tangibility into intangibility. The concrete experiencing of the existential space limits the interpretation all the way along the line of transformation of the percept into non-physical because of particular functional and material limitation of the public places of city (Madanipour 2004)[12]. Although the functions of the public spaces are not served as one reason the main idea behind them meeting necessary activity. So every specialized function creates point to be connected for the habitants. It causes fragmentation in the urban structure. Between these destinations the streets are just stayed as a stairs of the ordinary apartment block. Through this line in the urban streets and other, out of necessary spaces like the categorization of  Oldenburg, is served the habitats as service core in a regular structure. Streets and squares give way to vast open spaces and flexible location of high-rise buildings, subordinating the void to the mass, undermining the space of sociability (Madanipour 2004)[13]. These nonfunctional voids are the only platform for all habitants who have chance to be in interplay others. Through the urban rule and condition of the transitional spaces, in public, are impermanent and transient although their objectivities are certain, concrete and static.

The action in these axes is routine as walking. This monotonous experiment on this line of the urban blunts our interpretation power and generalization is occurred. These neutralize its surprises by unearthing the old experiences in memory. Instead of being renewable, it turns into foregone conclusion and the variation of the perception is no more mentioned. The built environment, in a relation with the body, orientates the beings towards the element of the test that the result is already known by experienced. That is why the beings are used to move slowly but surely under limitation without conscious. They lose their ability of interpretation, communication, understanding, observation, questioning, specified the specialties of beings. Built environment has a

great impact on pressing or revealing the subjectivity.The unity and straight lines, are alien to human being (Hundertwasser, 1990)[14], are driving apart rather than taking attention of the beings. As a conclusion of this chapter through the shared thought of theories, the urban design assumes that it is a mechanistic discipline. As a result, rigid design occurs. The context like mechanical system does not fit. The important thing is, as Doxiadis (1966) also mentioned, in which Between Utopia and Dystopia in terms of success of the utopia, about lacking of internal cohesion[15]. The metropolis cannot be evaluated like Descartian way for understanding each part to understanding hole.   This idea brings the mechanic approaches to the urban context. The connections between the elements are not well elaborated. As a result each layer is stayed separated. (Figure 2.Segregation-Figure 3.Unificaiton)[16]. 

OBSERVATION

Methodology

The segregation in the street of metropolis is observed under the routine placement of urban furniture and perception. In order to understand the relation between the pedestrian flow and the use of streets, the visual observation and photography are used as a technique of the study. Because instant shots identify the non-exhaustively first impression.Mostly we are acting unconsciously due to live in routine. From its beginnings, photography has been used as a tool for the exploration of society, and photographers have taken that as one of their tasks (Becker, 1974)[17]. When people try to present their instinctual expression in one speech order, it is limited by the resistance act of telling. This is done by the photography analysis, urban plan sample, and movement analysis to catch the moments in the speed of life.

Through the analysis of the activity and movement in metropolis, a new universal model of urban design technique parameter is systemized for newly urban furniture that will be designed. Diagrams include different age groups of people at one coordinate and hours of day represent in another axis. The lines hatched between these two coordinates mean the usage of street. The aim is to find the densest variety hours that people move in the street to create urban furniture that can act during these periods of time and increase the level of interaction between people in metropolis.

Result

By referring the idea of routine, looked like chaos, the observations took place in random squares and streets in the me­tropolis as first. Common results of detailed observations listed below. In the results that listed, the alphabet A, B, C, D and E symbolize age group below. The habitant based analysis, outside of the private space, brings this age classification and the period that stay outside during one day in which the urban interaction potentially there.

A: ELDER PEOPLE

B: WORKING PEOPLE

C: AFTERNOON PEOPLE

D: CHILDREN

E: TOURISTS

Human traffic is dense when people start to work and quit the work. B people do not have time to use urban furni­ture during working times but they easily follow signs and traffic lambs. They walk through them, they pass them. Light means security in metropolis not only lightened the darkness but also traffic lamps. People walk towards where the light is because they are afraid of dark. And using traffic lamp for crossing the streets or stop. Crossroads serve as public squares. Because everyday these points are the only stops before crossing the road. They physically act as public squares because of the high dense of people, as well as they are the most diverse area where people and traffic meet. People attract people. As Whyte (2004) mentioned, what attracts people most, it would appear, is other people[18]. Also Gehl (2011) dictates ‘…outdoor activities are greatly influenced by physical planning…’[19] This physical planning also brings the materiality together. All along with the sidewalks that creates pedestrians pathways, the material is the same and this makes out the same sense. The eye always catches the routine. C people, who do not work, move slowly randomly. B people population raises the rhythm of the public space in the morning and in the evening. Rhythm repeats itself everyday and becomes routine.

Street is a place for communication for A people. They sit and observe around and become social in streets. A people sit where they can rest. They try to find a tree to cover their head or lean against it. Some walls also serve as benches. Street vendors sometimes slow people’s movement down and make place alive with their voice and just being there.

The outcomes from this chapter can be concluded that even places chosen randomly, the results are in common in metropolis because the physical conditions of urban life and potential use of public space are nearly neglected in global world. With the usage of public furniture, it is impossible to any character of public space. The point that creates the uniqueness of the space is interaction with the people via help of the urban furniture as a tool.

DISCUSSIONS&SOLUTION

In the process of way-finding, the strategic link is the environmental image, the generalized mental picture of the exterior physi­cal world that is held by an individual. This image is the product both of immediate sensation and of the memory of past expe­rience, and it is used to interpret information and to guide action[20]. (Lynch, 1960)

 

Every pedestrian draw their personal environmental image that is why it is important to focus on general perception. Urban furniture can store past experience of its time and place. That’s why observations in metropolis are considered as rules to form them. Oppose to top-down approach, the new ap­proach should build where the human in the center and other parameters circle around with interaction of people. Others parameters that break routine perception are environmental varieties: light, seasonal factors like rain, heat and moisture etc… Results through analysis focus strongly on the interaction between people in public life in the public spaces. Design of urban furniture should begin with an analysis of the activities. Pedestrian living in metropolis like İstanbul show that everyday routine of people does not allow interaction. Capacity in public space explains the communication between people in real meaning. Gehl (2011) describes types of activities as necessary activities, optional activities and social activities. Social activities, as Gehl describes…’are all activities that depend on the presence of others in public spaces[21].’ They cannot be evaluated like Descartian way for understanding each part to understanding hole.

Analysis also proves that, E stands whole day in street. For D, it is only possible when they are on the way of school early in the morning, lunch time in the noon and the way of turning back their home in the afternoon. Correspondingly, like D, A and C act in the streets.(Figure 4. The usage of metropolis) From this model, it is understood that noon and afternoon hours have the potential for meeting and conversation. After this analysis, urban furniture is designed by considering to seasonal transformation of earth. The parameters of design are seen as light, moisture, heat and rain. They are necessary design parameters not only for communication between people and people but also communication and interaction for people and urban furniture. With this specific time period on the table for evening light issue creates security problem. That’s why just one side, lamp stands in a  linear order ,are used. The rest of streets are abounded. As one solution, light is contradictorily used as a pavement element. It is large scale solution seen from everywhere and invites people to the street. (Figure 5. Light system in the pavement).

Potential meetings occure at specific time that B people, go to work and turn home. Altough these kinds of necessary activities at outdoors make people isolated from any other things in terms of talking and meeting. Being able to see other people in action takes attraction.

For noon time especially variety of pedestrians use the public in high rate according to table that prepared from the observation in the city.  The monotone floor pattern and concrete material accelerate people’s movement. Ordinary rigid road material should gain elasticity to make people surprised. They should change their attitude according to crowd of people. To expand the duration of activities in outside, the regional and climatic factors should be considered. Therefore materials should adapt to the environmental changes. (Figure 6. Transformability).

As a conclusion in today’s global world is seen by the analysis of random places in metropolis. In despite of observation from different places, the roles and discussions are the same and every man becomes a prototype, made by physical world in metropolis. So they do not have different words to communicate. If urban design gives a tool to shape the prototype, prototype changes. In relation to this metropolis starts to change.

 

As a manifestation, and conclusion of this article;

Urban furniture should be used to create hybrid environment.

Urban furniture should store heat during summer and transform it in winter.

Urban furniture should store the solar light during the day time and illuminate the environments during night.

Urban furniture should absorb moisture, rain and snow and serve dry place to people.

Urban furniture should react both seasonal changes and people.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

[1]Lynch, K. (1960). The image of the city (Vol. 1). MIT press.

[2]Lamit, H., Ghahramanpouri, A., & Nia, S. S. (2012). A Behavioral Observation of Street Liveliness in Meldrum Walk, Johor Bahru of Malaysia. International Transaction Journal of Engineering, Management, & Applied Sciences & Technologies, 4.

[3]Kesim, G.A. ve Eroğlu, E., “The problems of Turkish urban furniture in terms landscape architecture”, 1.international urban furniture symphosium, İstanbul Metropolitan Municipality, 137-144, 2001

[4]Rapoport, A. (1982). The meaning of the built environment: A nonverbal communication approach. University of Arizona Press.

[5]Steele, J., & Moss, E. O. (1998). PS: A Building by Eric Owen Moss (Vol. 1). Images.

[6]Simmel, G. (1902). The number of members as determining the sociological form of the group. I. The American Journal of Sociology, 8(1), 1-46.

[7]Lynch, K. (1960). The image of the city (Vol. 1). MIT press.

[8] Jacobs, A. B. (1993). Great Streets. Cambridge: The MIT Press.

[9]Oldenburg, R. (2001). Celebrating the Third Place: Inspiring Stories About the Great Good Places at the Heart of Our Communities. Da Capo Press.

[10]Mehta, V. (2007). Lively streets determining environmental characteristics to support social behavior. Journal of Planning Education and Research, 27(2), 165-187.

[11]Schulz, N. (1980). Genius loci. Towards a Phenomenology of Architecture.

[12]Madanipour, A. (2004). Public and private spaces of the city. Routledge.

[13]Madanipour, A. (2004). Public and private spaces of the city. Routledge.

[14]Kvale, S. (1990). Postmodern psychology: A contradictio in adjecto?. The humanistic psychologist, 18(1), 35-54.

[15]Doxiades, Konstantinos Apostolou, (1966),Between dystopia and utopia, Trinity College Press

[16] E. O. Moss (1991-1996),Building and Projects,Piliph\preface Johnson;introduction Wolf Prix

[17]Becker, H. S. (1974). Photography and sociology. Studies in the anthropology of visual communication, 1(1), 3-26.

[18] Whyte, William Hollingsworth, The Social Life of Small Urban Spaces, third edition, New York 2004, p.19,96

[19]Gehl, J. (2011). Life between buildings: using public space. Island Press

[20]Lynch, K. (1960). The image of the city (p.1). MIT press

[21]Gehl, J. (2011). Life between buildings: using public space (p.11). Island Press

FIGURES

figures

Image by Baloğlu, M. & Çakaloğulları, Ş.

 

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